O Sweet Mr Math

wherein is detailed Matt's experiences as he tries to figure out what to do with his life. Right now, that means lots of thinking about math.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

7:26 PM

What do we know about compact sets, besides their kind of clunky and nonintuitive definition? So far, not much. We know that if a set is compact, it is compact in any space which contains it, which is a good start. Let's look at other properties of compact sets.

Assume E is a compact set in some space X. As usual, I'm picturing E as a square drawn on a piece of paper, which represents X. Choose some point p which is outside of E. For every point q in E, we are going to draw two neighborhoods. Vq is a neighborhood of p, and Wq is a neighborhood of q. Note that both subscripts are q, because we are taking any single fixed point p which is not in E, and then we are considering lots of different q's in E, and we are drawing neighborhoods around p and q depending on the particular q we are currently looking at.

Okay, that was a horrible abstract mess. Mark p on the page, somewhere not inside the square. Pick any point in the square, mark it, and call it q1. Measure the distance between p and q1 with a ruler. Call the distance d1. Draw a circle with radius d1/2 around p, and call the circle Vq1. Draw a circle with the same radius around q1, and call that circle Wq1. Each circle represents an open neighborhood. The circles touch on the page, but they don't overlap. There are no points in both circles.

Next, mark a second point in the square and call it q2. Measure the distance from q2 to p, and call the distance d2. Draw a second circle around p with radius d2/2, and call it Vq2. Draw a circle around q2 with the same radius, and call it Wq2.

Skip to the end. Assume we've marked every single point in E, measured the distance, and drawn lots of circles. p will be at the center of lots of circles. Each circle will have its own radius, but it is of course okay if two different circles have the same radius. Looking in E, every point will be the center of exactly one circle, but in general each point will be in the interior of lots of circles.

Now, every neighborhood of every q is an open set. Since every point in E is the center of one circle, the union of the collection of all the neighborhoods is an open cover of E. (Formally, E ⊂ ∪q(Wq). Since each Wq is an open set, the collection {Wq} is an open cover of E.) Since E is compact, a finite subcollection of {Wq} is also an open cover.

Look at that finite subcollection. For each set in that subcollection, there is a corresponding neighborhood of p. (If Wq1 is in the subcollection, Vq1 is the corresponding neighborhood of p.) Since the collection is finite, there is a smallest neighborhood in the collection. (If the collection were infinite, it's possible that there would be no smallest neighborhood. We are dependent on the fact that E is compact to limit ourselves to a finite collection of sets.) Call the smallest neighborhood Vqsmall.

Vqsmall is a neighborhood of p. Furthermore, Vqsmall can't contain any points in E. In our finite subcollection of {Wq}, no Wqn can intersect its corresponding Vqn. Since we are looking at the smallest Vq, none of the Wq can intersect it. Go back to the piece of paper with the square and two points marked in the square. If each pair of circles for point q1 has a smaller radius than the pair for point q2, then Wq1 overlaps Vq2, but neither circle overlaps Vq1. Just extend that to a finite number of circles. (With an infinite number of circles, each circle could be smaller than the previous one, and it all breaks down.)

We've been talking about the set E. Let's turn things inside out and look at the complement of E, Ec. p is a member of Ec. Vqsmall is a neighborhood of p. Vqsmall does not intersect any set Wq in the finite open cover of E, and E is a subset of its open cover. Therefore, Vqsmall does not intersect E, so it is a subset of Ec. Therefore, p is an interior point of Ec. But p is just any arbitrary point in Ec, so every point in Ec is an interior point. Which means that Ec is an open set. (This chain of reasoning had a lot of individual steps, and if, like me, you're struggling to get up to speed on all these definitions, you may be wondering why each step follows from the last. Everything here comes from the definition of an open set.)

So if E is a compact set, then this means that Ec is an open set. Which means, in turn, that E is a closed set. Stated again, in conclusion, every compact set is closed. (The converse is not true. On the real number line, look at the set of all integers. This set is closed, but not compact.)

I keep thinking I'm going to get further talking about compact sets than I do, but I think I need to lay everything out in exhaustive detail to make sure that I understand it. I had hoped to cover more ground today, but I'm going to have to stop here and return to compact sets next week.




What does "rolls a hoover" mean, anyway?

"Roll a hoover" was coined by Christopher Locke, aka RageBoy (not worksafe). He enumerated some Hooverian Principles, but that might not be too helpful. My interpretation is that rolling a hoover means doing something that you know is stupid without any clear sense of what the outcome will be, just to see what will happen. In my case, I quit my job in an uncertain economy to try to start a business. I'm still not sure how that will work out.

Why is the HTML for this page not valid?

BlogSpot adds the advertisement that appears at the top of this page. That advertisement is not valid HTML and is outside of my control. I believe that aside from that ad, this page is valid HTML.